Kampf G, Marschall S, Eggerstedt S. & Ostermeyer C. Efficacy of ethanol-based hand foams using clinically relevant amounts: a cross-over controlled study among healthy volunteers. BMC Infectious Disease 2010, 10:78.
Foams containing 62% ethanol are used for hand decontamination in many countries. A long drying time may reduce the compliance of healthcare workers in applying the recommended amount of foam. Therefore, we have investigated the correlation between the applied amount and drying time, and the bactericidal efficacy of ethanol foams.
In a first part of tests, four foams (Alcare plus, Avagard Foam, Bode test foam, Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer) containing 62% ethanol, which is commonly used in U.S. hospitals, were applied to 14 volunteers in a total of seven variations, to measure drying times. In a second part of tests, the efficacy of the established amount of foam for a 30 s application time of two foams (Alcare plus, Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer) and water was compared to the EN 1500 standard of 2 × 3 mL applications of 2-propanol 60% (v/v), on hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Each application used a cross-over design against the reference alcohol with 15 volunteers.
Results: The mean weight of the applied foam varied between 1.78 and 3.09 g, and the mean duration to dryness was between 37 s and 103 s. The correlation between the amount of foam applied and time until hands felt dry was highly significant (p < 0.001; Pearson's correlation coefficient: 0.724; 95% confidence interval: 0.52-0.93). By linear correlation,
1.6 g gave an intercept of a 30 s application time. Application of 1.6 g of Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer (mean log10- reduction: 3.05 ± 0.45) and Alcare plus (3.58 ± 0.71) was significantly less effective than the reference disinfection (4.83 ± 0.89 and 4.60 ± 0.59, respectively; p < 0.001). Application of 1.6 g of water gave a mean log10-reduction of 2.39 ± 0.57.
When using 62% ethanol foams, the time required for dryness often exceeds the recommended 30 s. Therefore, only a small volume is likely to be applied in clinical practice. Small amounts, however, failed to meet the efficacy requirements of EN 1500 and were only somewhat more effective than water.
Dissemination and Sustainability of a Hospital-Wide Hand Hygiene Program Emphasizing Positive Reinforcement
Jeanmarie Mayer, MD; Barbara Mooney, RN, CIC; Adi Gundlapalli, MD, PhD; Stephan Harbarth, MD, MS; Gregory J Stoddard, MPH; Michael A. Rubin, MD, PhD; Louise Eutropius, RN, CIC; Britt Brinton, MT, CIC; Matthew H. Samore, MD
Objective: To increase and sustain hospital-wide compliance with hand hygiene through a long-term ongoing multidimensional improvement program emphasizing behavioral factors.
Design: Quasi-experimental short study (August 2000–November 2001) and descriptive time series (April 2003–December 2006).
Setting: A 450-bed teaching tertiary-care hospital.
Interventions: An initial intervention bundle was introduced in pilot locations that addressed cognitive behavioral factors, which included access to alcohol sanitizer, education, and ongoing audit and feedback. The bundle was subsequently disseminated hospital-wide, along with a novel approach focused on behaviour modification through positive reinforcement and annually changing incentives.
Results: A total of 36,123 hand hygiene opportunities involving all categories of healthcare workers from 12 inpatient units were observed from October 2000 to October 2006. The rate of compliance with hand hygiene significantly improved after the intervention in 2 cohorts over the first year (from 40% to 64% of opportunities and from 34% to 49% of opportunities; P<.001, compared with the control group). Mean compliance rates ranged from 19% to 41% of 4174 opportunities (at baseline), increased to the highest levels of 73%–84% of 6,420 opportunities 2 years after hospital-wide dissemination, and remained improved at 59%–81% of 4,990 opportunities during year 6 of the program.
Conclusion: This interventional cohort study used a behavioral change approach and is one of the earliest and largest institution-wide programs promoting alcohol sanitizer from the United States that has shown significant and sustained improvements in hand hygiene compliance. This creative campaign used ongoing frequent audit and feedback with novel use of immediate positive reinforcement at an acceptable cost to the institution.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2011; 32(1):59-66